Minorities & Multilingualism

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Unsplashed background img 2

Deze opleiding

What exactly are minorities? How do minorities use their language and culture to stand against majorities? How do we deal with multilingualism in a multicultural society?

open_in_newstudy website

typeregulier, 180 EC
start1 september
taalvolledig English
opleidingsduur3 jaar voltijd
numerus fixusnee
honoursheeft honours track

In the BA programme Minorities & Multilingualism you will learn about languages, cultures, histories and politics of (linguistic) minorities in the Netherlands, Europe and beyond. Instead of focusing on the majority, in this programme you will focus on the non-dominant groups in society. Through knowledge and understanding of cultural and linguistic diversity, the programme educates you to become an expert in the area of diversity management, group formation and multilingualism.

The entire programme is taught in English by staff of the department of Minorities & Multilingualism | Frisian. If you want, you can specialise in Frisian, the local minority. Fieldwork is an integral part of the study, in which you’ll put the theories you’ve encountered in the programme into practice. In addition, you’ll develop essential speaking and writing skills that are also applicable outside the framework of minorities and multilingualism.

Interested? Visit our Open Day, or join our web class!

Waarom aan de University of Groningen?

awardKeuzegids topopleiding
2016 : score 88
  • Unique perspective: M&M is the only programme of its kind in the Netherlands. Because we are a freestanding programme (not part of another department such as History or Languages and Cultures), each course is uniquely designed to take the perspective of minorities or multilingualism as its starting point. Through the experts we have in the department in various fields (history, linguistics, narratology), you are ensured of developing a wide field of vision on the issues surrounding minorities
  • Small groups: In our programme you are a name, not a number. This allows plenty of room for interaction and student contributions during the seminars.
  • Internationalisation: We encourage students to spend a semester at a university abroad as part of their studies.


Unsplashed background img 2
opbouwDisclaimer: The second and third-year course units shown in the table are subject to change in the event of alterations to the programme.
1e jaar In the first year, you'll acquire foundational knowledge on the topics in the programme. You'll attend courses on the history of (linguistic) minorities in Europe, language change, multilingualism in society and linguistics.
Minority Languages I
5 EC
History of European Minorities I
5 EC
Introduction to Linguistics I
5 EC
Minority Languages II
5 EC
History of European Minorities II
5 EC
Introduction to Linguistics II
5 EC
Landen/samenlevingen, Midden-Oosten I keuzevak
5 EC
Eurolab 1a: European Migration keuzevak
5 EC
Minorities in Contemporary Europe I
5 EC
Multilingualism I
5 EC
Taalvaardigheid Fries Ia keuzevak
5 EC
Eurolab 1b: European Migration keuzevak
5 EC
Minorities in Contemporary Europe II
5 EC
Multilingualism II
5 EC
Taalvaardigheid Fries Ib keuzevak
5 EC
2e jaar In year two you extend your knowledge. The courses deal with themes relating to the cultural diversity of minorities and their cultural representations in arts and literature. In addition, you'll develop your research skills and apply these in the local 'lab'. You'll also make a start with your minor, or you can opt to specialise in Frisian.
Min. repr. in Arts and Literature I
5 EC
Keuzevak 1 keuzevak
20 EC
Research Methodology II
5 EC
Taalvaardigheid Fries IIa keuzevak
5 EC
Min. repr. in Arts and Literature II
5 EC
Research Methodology I
5 EC
Taalvaardigheid Fries IIb keuzevak
5 EC
Intro to Gender and Sexuality Studies keuzevak
10 EC
Into the Local Laboratory: Cultural Heritage
10 EC
Geschiedenis van Friesland keuzevak
10 EC
Into the Laboratory: Language
10 EC
3e jaar In year three you will complete your studies and look ahead to future study and/or career opportunities. You can spend a semester at a university abroad, or complete an internship. In the final semester, you'll write your Bachelor thesis.
Vrije Ruimte keuzevak
30 EC
Oud-Fries keuzevak
10 EC
Friese Literatuur keuzevak
10 EC
Friese Taalkunde keuzevak
10 EC
M&M Diversity Management
10 EC
Into to Local Laboratory: Language
10 EC
10 EC


track Frisian

As part of the full programme Minorities & Multilingualism students can follow a specialisation track in Frisian language and culture. For more information see link above.

minor Minors

The fifth semester of your studies is dedicated to your Minor: a coherent set of future-oriented course units. It prepares you for a follow-on Master's degree program or for entering the labour market. You can opt for a Career Minor, a Minor abroad, a University Minor or a Faculty Minor.


taal van onderwijs100% en
onderwijsopzet60% zelfstudie
30% theorie
10% praktijk
literature study, internship, research, tutorial, lecture, group discussion, self evaluation, individual assignment, self study, integration module, project
study guidance
If you have any questions or doubts about your studies, you can always contact our study advisors. They know all the ins and outs of the programme: minors, study abroad and personal planning. Study advisors are impartial and everything that is discussed is treated confidentially. They can also help you find the right institutions and student desks for your problems.
study abroad
As part of your studies we encourage students who want to, to spend a semester at a university abroad. In this way, you'll be able to experience what you have learned in the courses in a different setting.
exchange programs
  • Uitwisselingsprogramma - Duitsland
    Universiteit van Flensburg
  • Universidad de Deusto, Bilbao, Spain Uitwisselingsprogramma - Spanje
    Universiteit van Bilbao
  • Bangor University Welsh specialisation - Groot Brittanie
    Students who wish to specialise in Welsh as part of their BA M&M can do so by going to Bangor for 6-12 months during their third year of studies.
bindend studieadvies
  • minimaal 45 EC in de eerste 12 maanden

honours-/excellence program University of Groningen Honours College

The Honours College will give talented, motivated students the chance to be challenged even more by following Honours programmes and taking part in numerous other activities.

The Honours College comprises a broadening part and a deepening part and has a study load of 45 ECTS credit points besides the 180 ECTS credit points from your regular Bachelor programme.

Toelating en kosten


1 september 2020

aanmelding deadline : 1 juni 2020
wettelijk tarief : € 2143 (€1072 in het eerste jaar)
instellingstarief : € 8600
niet-EU/EER studenten : € 9500

1 september 2021

aanmelding deadline : 1 mei 2021
collegegeld nog niet bekend

toelaatbare profielen
VWO N&Ttoelaatbaar
VWO N&Gtoelaatbaar
VWO E&Mtoelaatbaar
VWO C&Mtoelaatbaar
hbo-pAdditional requirements English: Minimum requirement of TOEFL iBT 90 (with a minimum of 21 on all items), or IELTS 6.5 (with a minimum of 6 on all items). Language Centre English Test (LCET) level C1 (B2 for a maximum of 1 component). Cambridge C1 Advanced or C2 Proficiency with a minimum score of 180. For more information on the LCET, refer to site of the language center: https://www.rug.nl/language-centre/testing-unit/english-lcet/
WO propedeusetoelaatbaar

estimated monthly costs

bron: Nibud
303kamerhuur in Groningenrond het landelijk gemiddelde
172collegegeldop basis van € 2060 per jaar
80studieboeken en -spullen
77uiterlijkkleding, kapper, schoenen
132vrije tijdstappen, uit eten, vakantie
42vervoernaast de OV-kaart

€ 1171totale maandelijkse uitgaven landelijk gemiddelde is € 1181
Hiernaast staat een overzicht van de gemiddelde kosten die een uitwonende student heeft. Niet iedere student heeft met iedere kostenpost te maken. Het totaalgemiddelde is dus niet gelijk aan de optelsom van alle kostenposten.

Bekijk ook de uitgebreide toelichting: wat kost studeren?

Studenten en studentenleven


54 studenten volgen deze opleiding
78% daarvan is vrouw
13 eerstejaars gestart in 2017
85% daarvan is vrouw
29331 studenten aan de University of Groningen
51% daarvan is vrouw
bron: StudieData


Multi is the study association of the bachelor programme Minorities & Multilingualism at the University of Groningen. They organise study related activities, but also fun drinks with other students and professors.

Op kamers in Groningen

55216studenten studerend
31914studenten woonachtig   
€ 303gemiddelde kamerprijs
kamer betaalbaarheid
21 m2gemiddelde kameroppervlak
kamer beschikbaarheid
bron: Nationale Studenten Enquête

aan het woord: studenten en docenten

Lucia Baldassini
Improving the curriculum together

I decided to study Minorities and Multilingualism because I wanted to understand the underlying causes of the
difficulties in dialogue between majority and minority groups. So far the programme has helped me develop critical thinking, speaking and writing skills, and has given me all the basic tools I need to analyse the complex reality of minority groups.What I particularly enjoy is the close contact between lecturers and students, which is made possible by the small scale of the programme. I also had the opportunity to engage in extracurricular activities...
I think it’s very important that staff and students work together to improve the curriculum.The opportunity to get to know another culture was one of the reasons I chose to study abroad. And Groningen is the best city to live as a student. The city really makes the effort to get its citizens involved in various activities.

lees verder ...
Mille van der Spoel
The combination of politics, history, culture, and language in light of minorities in societies seemed like a wide set of aspects that sounded very interesting to me.

About MilleMy name is Mille van der Spoel and I study Minorities and Multilingualism (M&M). Besides this, I am the Chair of Network of Arts, the studentboard of the Faculty of Arts. Due to this position, I am in contact with many students and teachers.Why Minorities and Multilingualism?I noticed this program while I was still studying Psychology. Studying Psychology was not right for me and I started looking for something else. When I heard about M&M I almost immediately thought that it was perfect for me...
I still consider this to be true. There is a lot of variety within the program: some courses focus on language in combination with minorities, others focus on history and society in combination with minorities, some courses focus on all these aspects at once.Because of the 30 ECTS you can gain by following courses from other programs, you can create your own set of knowledge and prepare yourself for the Masters of your choosing. M&M offers many different futures and because it is a rather small program, there is a lot of personal attention for every student.Read more about Mille van der Spoel and why she chose to study M&M in Groningen!

Questions? Send Mille an e-mail!

lees verder ...
It is nice to not be a number in the business of education, but a student in the education of the world

'At the risk of getting all 'eat, pray, love' on you guys, I began to better realise my interests whilst travelling around and this manifested into linguistics, sociology and writing. This course hits the nail on the head, with a combination of all of the above.Of course, going into the programme I had a rough idea of what to expect, but now I am extremely happy with my decision. A big plus for me is the hands on approach teachers have with the students. I feel accountable and contactable. My last tertiary experience was in a really large setting with hundreds of students enrolled in the one course...
Not only that, but the teachers are all up to date with what we are learning across all classes within the course and having such complementary classes enables learning to be a lot more enjoyable and cohesive.If you are considering an English taught programme in linguistics and have an interest in the sociological impact languages play, then you should really consider this course. It is nice to not be a number in the business of education, but a student in the education of the world.'

lees verder ...
Jesse David Marinus
I needed a programme that would challenge me

After two years of Applied Law (HBO-Rechten) I needed a programme that would challenge me, one where I could research rather than search. M&M is an interdisciplinary programme that combines anthropology, politics, history, sociology, linguistics and multilingualism. The programme has motivated me to be active, and all the support has made it possible for me to take extra course units, do volunteer work at LGBT organisation COC and the Frisian youth association FYK, serve on the board of DAG (student movement for democratization at RUG), and be chairman of the study association Multi...
Living in Groningen gives a boost to your student life, as it is a vibrant, young and exciting city.

lees verder ...
Elise Groot
A combination of culture, politics, history and linguistics

It can be very difficult to choose a degree programme, especially when you are interested in many different things. This programme combines linguistics and multilingualism with culture, politics, history and linguistics and is all about minorities – people who are different, treated as unequal or whose culture is in danger.I always get very passionate about equality and treating people fairly, and want to do something about it when this is not the case...
M&M has taught me that these things are all intertwined. We study how someone's accent can more or less decide their future, how political issues surrounding minorities are addressed, how school systems do or do not support migrant children and how cultural heritage can support a minority. These are just some examples of topics you will encounter in M&M.

lees verder ...
Nienke Jet de Vries
werkzaam als Policy officer
Developing the Province's language policy

I work as a policy officer at the Province of Fryslân and my portfolio comprises language, education and literacy policy. As a policy officer I develop the Province's language policy together with my colleagues and help implement it. Political and societal developments have a direct effect on my work. On the one hand this makes the work dynamic and sometimes ad hoc, and on the other it gives you a feeling of involvement with the people of the province.I came across the Minorities and Multilingualism (Fryske Taal en Kultuer) programme by chance...
I enjoyed that so much that I decided to do the full programme. After my Bachelor’s degree I did the Master’s in European Literature and Culture and the Master’s in Multilingualism.

lees verder ...

Feiten en / studie in cijfers


bron: Nationale Studenten Enquete
algemeen oordeel4.54.5
De Nationale Studenten Enquete is het grootschalige onderzoek van de overheid onder studenten in Nederland naar de kwaliteit van opleidingen aan hogescholen en universiteiten.
In 2017 hebben meer dan 280.000 studenten hun oordeel gegeven over hun studie en instelling.

Minorities & Multilingualism aan de University of Groningen is beoordeeld door 19 respondenten. Gemiddeld waarderen ze de opleiding met 4.5 uit 5.

Na de studie

Unsplashed background img 2

Beroepsperspectief / arbeidsmarkt

With a degree in M&M you are widely qualified on the job market. You have knowledge of issues surrounding minority groups in society, which makes you a suitable candidate to work at governmental agencies, as a policy advisor in education, diversity, minorities or cultural heritage. Or report on minority politics by becoming a journalist. Your knowledge of multilingualism and diversity management is valuable in careers where you have to deal with people from different (linguistic) backgrounds.

How can a city deal with multilingualism in the public domain? As language policy advisor your knowledge of this comes in handy. Or specialise in multilingualism in the workplace and develop communication strategies for (international) companies. With a specialisation in Frisian you are able to work in the Frisian cultural sector; at the Historic and Literary Center Tresoar, the Afûk, or the Fryske Akademy.

Most students continue their studies in a Master programme, for example the Master Multilingualism, or Euroculture. With a specialisation in Frisian language and culture it is also possible to deepen your knowledge in Frisian literature, or to get a teaching qualification.

aansluitende masteropleidingen

University of GroningenEducatie in de Taal- en cultuurwetenschappen - Friese Taal en Cultuur full-time,part-time educationalgeen aanvullende eisen
University of GroningenEuroculture (EM)geen aanvullende eisen
University of GroningenEuropean Linguisticsgeen aanvullende eisen
University of GroningenEuropese Studiesgeen aanvullende eisen
Leiden UniversityLinguistics (Research) research+ aanv. eisen
Universiteit voor HumanistiekMaster Humanistiekgeen aanvullende eisen
Universiteit voor HumanistiekMaster Zorgethiek en Beleidgeen aanvullende eisen
University of GroningenMultilingualismgeen aanvullende eisen
University of GroningenNeerlandistiekgeen aanvullende eisen
bron: doorstroommatrix.nl

Potentiële beroepen

beleidsmedewerker taal, cultuur, erfgoed

A policy maker develops and evaluates a policy and may assist in the execution of the policy.


As a communication expert in the field of intercultural communication you advise national and international organizations on efficient and effective communication.

diverse functies

Students who follow the Frisian track can carry out various functions in Friesland after graduation. Think of a job with the provincial government or medium-sized cultural institutions, such as Tresoar, Afûk, Frisian Museum and Omrop Fryslân.

bron: StudieData


Ask Your Question Here

please fill in this contact form, we will answer you as soon as possible.

Sjors van Ooij

Studieadviseur / study advisor

Drs. Aletta Westra-Hofstee

Studieadviseur / study advisor

Prof. Dr. Goffe Jensma

Course director

Admission Office (Contact form)
E: -
T: +31-(0)50 363 8976
W: Admission Office (Contact form)
Mille van der Spoel

Student Ambassador

Meer informatie?
Bezoek de website van deze opleiding.

open_in_newstudy website